Sunday, January 21, 2024

2024 WEF Summit: A Quick Catch-Up


2024 WEF Summit: A Quick Catch-Up

The 2024 World Economic Forum (WEF) summit in Davos, Switzerland, focused on rebuilding trust amidst a "polycrisis" – multiple converging challenges like climate change, the Ukraine war, and the cost-of-living crisis. Here are the key takeaways:


Rebuilding Trust: Transparency, consistency, and accountability were emphasized as crucial for tackling global challenges.

Polycrisis Solutions: Collaboration between governments, businesses, and civil society was highlighted as critical for addressing interconnected issues.

Technological Disruption: Managing the impacts of AI and other emerging technologies was a major discussion point.

Sustainability and Climate Action: Accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy and achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) remained central themes.

Key Topics:

Climate Change: Leaders urged more ambitious emission reduction targets and concrete action plans. The role of innovation and technology in green solutions was also discussed.

Food Security and Hunger: The Ukraine war's impact on global food insecurity and the need for resilient food systems were addressed.

Cost-of-Living Crisis: Inflation and economic instability were major concerns, with calls for fairer economic policies and social safety nets.

Geopolitical Tensions: The war in Ukraine and its global ramifications were a significant focus, with discussions on conflict resolution and building security.

The Future of Work: The impact of automation and the need for skills development in the digital age were explored.


Several initiatives were launched, including the "Global Risks Report 2024" highlighting key threats, and the "Circulars Accelerator" supporting businesses in the transition to a circular economy.

Commitments to action were made on various issues, such as climate change, food security, and digital governance.

Overall, the 2024 WEF summit painted a picture of a world facing complex challenges but also brimming with potential for collaboration and innovation. While significant work remains, the summit offered a platform for global leaders to discuss solutions and chart a path towards a more sustainable and resilient future.


World Economic Forum website: 

Davos 2024 highlights:

World Economic Forum Annual Meeting press release:

Monday, January 15, 2024

Post-modern Behavioral Addictions (TOEFL/SAT/ etc. Reading Comprehension Practice)

Post-modern Behavioral Addictions

Post-modern Behavioral Addictions

In an era dominated by technology and digital media, a new category of addictions has emerged, known as post-modern behavioral addictions. These addictions are characterized not by dependency on substances, but by compulsive engagement in rewarding non-substance-related behaviors.

One of the most prevalent forms of post-modern addiction is internet addiction, which includes a variety of behaviors such as compulsive use of social media, online gaming, and excessive browsing. Social media addiction, in particular, has been linked to various mental health issues including anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. The constant need for social validation and the fear of missing out (FOMO) drive individuals to spend excessive amounts of time on social media platforms.

Another significant form of post-modern addiction is video game addiction, which often involves multiplayer online role-playing games. These games can provide a sense of community and accomplishment, but excessive play can lead to neglect of personal relationships, work, and even basic self-care.

Smartphone addiction is also on the rise, with individuals becoming increasingly dependent on their devices for various activities, ranging from communication to entertainment. This dependency often leads to problems like disrupted sleep patterns, reduced physical activity, and impaired social interactions.

The treatment of post-modern behavioral addictions often involves cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps individuals understand and change their addictive behaviors. In addition, developing a balanced relationship with technology and setting healthy boundaries are crucial steps in overcoming these modern-day challenges.

Comprehension Questions:

1. What distinguishes post-modern behavioral addictions from traditional addictions?
a) They involve the use of digital media.
b) They are based on substance dependency.
c) They are less prevalent in society.
d) They only affect younger generations.
2. Which mental health issues are associated with social media addiction?
a) Increased self-esteem and happiness
b) Anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem
c) Improved social skills
d) Enhanced physical health
3. What is a common consequence of video game addiction?
a) Improved cognitive abilities
b) Strengthened personal relationships
c) Neglect of personal relationships and responsibilities
d) Increased physical activity
4. Why is smartphone addiction becoming more prevalent?
a) Smartphones are becoming less expensive.
b) People use smartphones for a limited range of activities.
c) Smartphones are central to many daily activities.
d) Smartphones are less entertaining than other devices.
5. What is a key approach in treating post-modern behavioral addictions?
a) Prescribing medication
b) Avoiding all forms of technology
c) Cognitive-behavioral therapy and setting boundaries with technology
d) Increasing the time spent on these behaviors

Why is Ethiopia the African Eldorado? | Documentary

Sunday, January 14, 2024

TOEFL/IELTS Reading Comprehension Practice: MLK and the Civil Rights Movement

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement

[Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., an iconic figure in American history, played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. His advocacy for nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience was inspired by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and rooted in Christian beliefs. King's leadership in the struggle against racial segregation and discrimination is a defining feature of this period in American history.

King's most famous moment, the "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered during the March on Washington in 1963, is celebrated for its powerful vision of racial harmony and equality. This speech not only inspired millions but also exerted significant influence on the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. These pieces of legislation were crucial in dismantling legal segregation and ensuring voting rights for African Americans.

However, King's journey was marked by numerous challenges, including arrests, violence, and widespread opposition. His nonviolent approach often put him at odds with more radical factions within the movement. Despite these obstacles, King's commitment to achieving civil rights through peaceful means remained unshaken.

Tragically, King's life was cut short when he was assassinated in 1968. His death sparked a wave of mourning and protests across the nation. Today, Dr. King's legacy is remembered as a symbol of hope, justice, and the ongoing fight for equality. His birthday is observed as a national holiday in the United States, honoring his contributions and the enduring impact of his work.]


1. What was a central aspect of Dr. King's approach in the Civil Rights Movement?
a) Armed resistance
b) Nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience
c) Political lobbying
d) Economic boycotts
2. What was the significance of Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" speech?
a) It led directly to his assassination.
b) It highlighted the economic disparities between races.
c) It was a turning point in the Vietnam War.
d) It influenced major civil rights legislation.
3. What challenges did Dr. King face in his activism?
a) Widespread support and acceptance
b) Financial prosperity
c) Arrests, violence, and opposition
d) Lack of public speaking skills
4. How did Dr. King's assassination impact the nation?
a) It resulted in the immediate end of the Civil Rights Movement.
b) It led to the establishment of the Nobel Peace Prize.
c) It sparked mourning and protests nationwide.
d) It diminished the significance of his work.
5. What is a legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.?
a) The decline of nonviolent protest
b) His birthday is observed as a national holiday
c) The end of racial discrimination
d) The cessation of the Civil Rights Movement

เรียนภาษาอังกฤษจากวาทะดลใจ กับ ดร. เพียงดิน รักไทย EP. 19

Tuesday, January 2, 2024

English Dialects and Varieties

The English language is rich and diverse, with a wide range of dialects and varieties spoken across the world. These varieties of English differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar, reflecting the unique histories, cultures, and experiences of their speakers.

Phonetic Variation

One of the most noticeable features of different dialects is phonetic variation or differences in pronunciation. For example, British Received Pronunciation (RP) typically has non-rhotic speech, which means that the 'r' at the end of words is not pronounced ('car' sounds like 'cah'). In contrast, General American English is rhotic, and the 'r' is pronounced.

Another example is the trap-bath split in Southern British English, where words like 'bath' and 'dance' have a longer vowel sound compared to Northern British English. In General American English, these words have a short vowel sound similar to the Northern British pronunciation.

Lexical Variation

Different dialects often have distinct words for the same object or concept. For instance, in British English, the back of a car is the "boot," while in American English, it is the "trunk." In British English "biscuit" refers to what Americans would call a "cookie," and an American "biscuit" is more similar to a British "scone."

Grammatical Variation

Dialects can also exhibit grammatical differences. For example, in some dialects of British English, speakers might use the present perfect to describe a past event ("I have eaten already") whereas, in many American English dialects, the simple past is used more often for the same purpose ("I ate already").

Another grammatical variation occurs with the use of collective nouns, which can be singular or plural depending on the dialect. In American English, collective nouns are usually singular ("The team is winning"), whereas in British English, they can be plural ("The team are winning").

Dialects in Different Regions

The English language has numerous regional dialects, even within the same country. For example, in the United States, there's Southern English, characterized by a drawl and certain vowel shifts, and African American Vernacular English (AAVE), with its unique grammatical structures and vocabulary. In the United Kingdom, there are remarkable differences between dialects such as Cockney, spoken in parts of London, and Geordie, from the Newcastle area in the North East of England.

Global Varieties of English

Beyond Britain and America, English has many global varieties, known as World Englishes. Examples include Indian English, with its distinctive vocabulary (e.g., 'prepone' as the opposite of 'postpone') and syntax influenced by native Indian languages, and Singaporean English or "Singlish," which includes words from Chinese dialects, Malay, and Tamil.

Understanding the different dialects and varieties of English requires an appreciation of the social and historical context in which they have developed. As English continues to evolve, educators and learners alike must recognize the rich tapestry of its global dialects, promoting an inclusive approach to the language.

Specific Differences between British and American English

British and American English are two principal dialects of the English language that often feature significantly in discussions about English linguistic variety. While they are mutually intelligible, there are notable differences in spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and some aspects of grammar.

Spelling Variations

One of the most concrete differences between British and American English is in spelling:

- Words ending in '-our' in British English usually end in '-or' in American English, as in 'colour' (British) vs. 'color' (American).

- Verbs ending in '-ise' in British English often change to '-ize' in American English, though this is not an absolute rule (e.g., 'realise' vs. 'realize').

- British English doubles the 'l' in verbs before adding suffixes like '-ed' or '-ing' while American English typically does not ('travelled' vs. 'traveled').

- British English uses 'c' where American English tends to use 's' in words like 'defence' (British) and 'defense' (American).

Pronunciation Variations

In terms of pronunciation, there are several systematic differences:

- Vowel sounds can differ, such as the already mentioned 'trap-bath' split, with words like 'class' and 'demand' having a short 'a' sound in American English but a longer 'a' in British English.

- T's are often 'flapped' in American English, sounding almost like a soft 'd' (e.g., 'water' pronounced wɑːdər), while they are enunciated more clearly in British English.

Vocabulary Variations

British and American English have different terms for many everyday objects and concepts:

- Automobile terms vary, with 'lorry' in British English and 'truck' in American English.

- In housing, a British 'flat' is an American 'apartment'.

- When it comes to clothing, what’s called 'trainers' in the UK are known as 'sneakers' in the US.

Grammatical Distinctions

There are also minor grammatical differences:

- The past simple and present perfect tenses are used differently. In British English, people might say, "I've just had lunch," while Americans might say, "I just had lunch."

- Collective nouns take a singular verb in American English and a plural verb in British English. For example, 'The team is playing well' (American) versus 'The team are playing well' (British).

- Certain prepositions and adverbs can also differ, as in the British 'at the weekend' versus the American 'on the weekend'.

Expressions and Idioms

Even expressions and idioms can diverge between the two:

- "I couldn't care less" in British English emphasizes indifference, whereas "I could care less" is often heard in American English, though it might sometimes be considered incorrect.

- 'Two weeks' is commonly referred to as 'a fortnight' in British English, a term not typically used in American English.

Understanding and navigating these differences are vital for effective communication, translation work, and teaching English as a second language. Awareness of these variations not only aids in preventing misunderstandings but also enriches one's appreciation of the English language's adaptability and diversity.

Some words to note

Here is a list of words that have the same (or very similar) meanings in British and American English but are referred to differently:

1. Lift (British English) - Elevator (American English)

2. Lorry (British English) - Truck (American English)

3. Flat (British English) - Apartment (American English)

4. Nappy (British English) - Diaper (American English)

5. Torch (British English) - Flashlight (American English)

6. Crisps (British English) - Chips (American English)

7. Chips (British English) - Fries (American English)

8. Biscuit (British English) - Cookie (American English)

9. Bonnet (British English) - Hood (American English, referring to part of a car)

10. Boot (British English) - Trunk (American English, referring to part of a car)

11. Trousers (British English) - Pants (American English)

12. Pants (British English) - Underwear (American English)

13. Vest (British English) - Undershirt (American English)

14. Waistcoat (British English) - Vest (American English)

15. Jumper (British English) - Sweater (American English)

16. Trainers (British English) - Sneakers (American English)

17. Football (British English) - Soccer (American English)

18. Chemist (British English) - Pharmacy or Drugstore (American English)

19. Postcode (British English) - ZIP Code (American English)

20. Rubbish (British English) - Trash or Garbage (American English)

21. Queue (British English) - Line (American English)

22. Post (British English) - Mail (American English)

23. Hoarding (British English) - Billboard (American English)

24. Zebra Crossing (British English) - Crosswalk (American English)

25. Film (British English) - Movie (American English)

26. Holiday (British English) - Vacation (American English)

27. Motorway (British English) - Highway (American English)

28. Dustbin (British English) - Trashcan (American English)

29. Car Park (British English) - Parking Lot (American English)

30. Ground Floor (British English) - First Floor (American English)

These words illustrate some of the lexical variety between British and American English, reflecting cultural differences as well as the independent evolution of the language within different regions.

How does the Australian English differ from the British and American English?

Australian English is a unique variety of English that has developed its characteristics from its mix of the original British settlers, the influence of Indigenous languages, and its geographical isolation. Over time, elements of American English have also permeated Australian English through media exposure. Here's a look at some of the differences that set Australian English apart from British and American English:

Vocabulary Differences

Australian English has its own slang and terms that are distinct from British and American English:

- Swimmers (Australia) - Swimwear known as 'Bathers' in South Australia and Western Australia, 'Togs' in Queensland, whereas it's 'Swimshorts' or 'Swimsuit' in American English, and 'Swimming Costume' or 'Swimmers' in British English.

- Thongs (Australia) - Refers to flip-flops in American English and 'Jandals' in New Zealand English; in British English, 'thongs' can refer to a type of underwear, and the footwear might be called 'flip flops'.

- Esky (Australia) - A cooler or portable cooler used for keeping drinks cold, similar to 'Cool Box' in British English and 'Cooler' in American English.

- Servo (Australia) - A service station or gas station in American English, and 'Petrol Station' in British English.

- Doona (Australia) - A 'Duvet' in British English and a 'Comforter' in American English.

Pronunciation Differences

Australian English has distinctive pronunciation features that are different from both British and American dialects:

- The Australian accent is non-rhotic like most UK accents, making it so that the 'r' at the end of words is not pronounced unless it's followed by a vowel.

- The vowel sound in words like 'dance', 'chance', and 'plant' is traditionally similar to the British long "a" (as in 'father'), unlike the American short "a" sound.

- Vowel shifts cause words like 'ear', 'beer', and 'here' to have a slightly different sound, sometimes perceived as 'ee-ah'.

- The intonation in Australian English often rises at the end of sentences, which can make statements sound like questions.

Spelling Differences

Australian English generally follows British spelling conventions:

- Words ending in '-our' in British English (such as 'colour' or 'labour') are spelled the same way in Australian English, while in American English, the 'u' is omitted ('color', 'labor').

- Words ending in '-ise', like 'realise', follow the British practice rather than the American '-ize' ('realize').

Grammatical Nuances

There are a few grammatical features in Australian English that may differ:

- Collective nouns can be either singular or plural, a flexibility seen in British English but less common in American English.

- The use of diminutives and abbreviations is prevalent. Australians may use 'arvo' for afternoon, 'uni' for university, and 'bikkie' for biscuit, which isn't typical in either British or American English.

As a living language, Australian English is dynamic and incorporates elements from Indigenous languages, the lexicon of early settlers, and more recent global influences, giving it a distinct character of its own.

How about the Canadian English?

Canadian English shares many similarities with both American and British English due to Canada's history and its strong cultural ties with both nations. Yet, it has its own unique identity with specific differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling, as well as a few grammatical quirks.

Vocabulary Differences

Canadian English includes a mix of British and American terms along with some distinct Canadianisms:

- Toque (Canadian English) - A knitted wool hat, known as a 'beanie' in American English.

- Chesterfield (Canadian, somewhat old-fashioned) - A couch or sofa, a term more common in British English historically.

- Runners (Canadian English) - Athletic shoes, similar to 'sneakers' in American English or 'trainers' in British English.

- Washroom (Canadian English) - The polite term for a toilet or restroom, closer to the American 'restroom'.

- Poutine (Canadian English) - A dish made with fries, cheese curds, and gravy, unique to Canadian cuisine.

- Double-double (Canadian English) - A coffee with two creams and two sugars, most commonly associated with the Tim Hortons coffee chain.

Pronunciation Differences

The Canadian accent has some distinct features that set it apart from American and British accents:

- Canadian Raising: Canadians often have a distinctive way of pronouncing the diphthongs /ai/ and /au/ before voiceless consonants (such as in 'about' or 'writer'), which can make them sound like 'aboot' or 'rider' to American ears.

- The pronunciation of the letter 'Z' as 'zed' is in line with British English, in contrast to the American 'zee'.

Spelling Differences

Canadian English follows British spelling conventions, with a few exceptions:

- Words ending in '-our' such as 'colour' and 'flavour' retain the 'u' as in British English.

- Like British English, 'theatre' and 'centre' end with '-re' rather than the American '-er'.

- Unlike British English, Canadian English uses '-ize' (as in 'realize') rather than '-ise'.

Grammatical Nuances

There are subtle grammatical features in Canadian English that may lean towards American or British usage:

- Like American English, Canadian English generally uses collective nouns with singular verbs.

- Prepositions in Canadian English often align with American usage, such as "on the weekend" instead of the British "at the weekend".

Language Influences and Official Bilingualism

Another aspect influencing Canadian English is the bilinguality of the country, with French being the other official language. This has led to some French terms being adopted into English usage, especially in legal and government contexts (e.g., attorney general).

Regionalisms and Indigenous Influence

Canada also has its regional variations and influences from Indigenous languages, especially in place names or terms specific to the local environment and culture (e.g., 'chinook' winds in Alberta).

Canadian English is therefore a rich blend of influences that reflect the country’s complex linguistic heritage and its ongoing cultural development.


Lesson 1: Learning Grammar Through Conversations

Lesson 1: Learning Grammar Through Conversations Lesson 1: Learning Grammar Through Conversations ...