Sunday, October 29, 2023

Intermediate English Grammar Diagnostic Test

  Intermediate English Grammar Diagnostic Test

Instructions: Choose the correct option to complete each sentence.

1. If I ____ him, I would have told you.

A) saw

B) have seen

C) had seen

D) would see

2. Sarah is the girl ____ sings in the choir.

A) who

B) which

C) where

D) whose

3. By the time you arrive, we ____ dinner.

A) will have

B) will have had

C) have had

D) had

4. I wish I ____ to her party last night, but I was too tired.

A) went

B) had gone

C) would go

D) g

5. Neither of the applicants ____ suitable for the job.

A) is

B) are

C) were

D) have been

6. She can’t attend the meeting, ____?

A) can she

B) can’t she

C) couldn’t she

D) isn’t it

7. the rain, the soccer game continued.

A) Despite

B) Although

C) Because

D) As

8. I used to ____ coffee every morning, but now I prefer tea.

A) drinking

B) drink

C) drank

D) have drunk

9. I'd rather you ____ to them why we can't come.

A) explain

B) explains

C) explained

D) to explain

10. The instructions ____ clearly before the exam started.

A) were explained

B) explained

C) are explained

D) have been explained

11. You ____ better check your answers before submitting the test.

A) would

B) should

C) could

D) must

12. Not only ____ to Paris, but he also visited Rome.

A) he went

B) went he

C) did he go

D) he did go

13. There ____ any messages for you while you were out.

A) wasn’t

B) weren’t

C) isn’t

D) aren’t

14. She’s interested ____ learning more about French history.

A) to

B) in

C) on

D) at

15. If he ____ the truth, he would have told us.

A) knows

B) knew

C) had known

D) know

16. We’ve run out of milk. I need to go ____ some.

A) buy

B) to buy

C) buying

D) buys

17. ____ time you come, please call first.

A) The next

B) Next

C) On next

D) At the next

18. This is the book ____.

A) who I need

B) that I need

C) which I need

D) what I need

19. Everyone ____ when the results were announced.

A) were surprised

B) was surprised

C) surprised

D) have been surprised

20. He drives more carefully ____ his brother does.

A) than

B) then

C) as

D) like

See the answer key below. Scroll to the bottom of the page.

Answer key for the diagnostic English grammar test:

  1. C) had seen
  2. A) who
  3. B) will have had
  4. B) had gone
  5. A) is
  6. A) can she
  7. A) Despite
  8. B) drink
  9. A) explain
  10. A) were explained
  11. B) should
  12. C) did he go
  13. B) weren’t
  14. B) in
  15. C) had known
  16. B) to buy
  17. B) Next
  18. B) that I need
  19. B) was surprised
  20. A) than

Friday, October 20, 2023

Quotable quotes on RECONCILIATION

"Reconciliation requires changes of heart and spirit, as well as social and economic change. It requires symbolic as well as practical action." – Malcolm Fraser

"Forgiveness is the key to action and freedom." – Hannah Arendt

"In the end, reconciliation is a spiritual process, which requires more than just a legal framework. It has to happen in the hearts and minds of people." – Nelson Mandela

"We are all broken by something. We have all hurt someone and have been hurt. We all share the condition of brokenness even if our brokenness is not equivalent." – Bryan Stevenson

"True reconciliation does not consist in merely forgetting the past." – Nelson Mandela

"Reconciliation should be accompanied by justice, otherwise it will not last. While we all hope for peace it shouldn't be peace at any cost but peace based on principle, on justice." – Corazon Aquino

"The practice of peace and reconciliation is one of the most vital and artistic of human actions." – Thich Nhat Hanh

"Forgiving is not forgetting; it's actually remembering—remembering and not using your right to hit back." – Desmond Tutu

"There is no reconciliation until you recognize the dignity of the other, until you see their view- you have to enter into the pain of the people. You've got to feel their need." – John M. Perkins

"The first step to reconciliation is understanding. The second step is acceptance." – Thabo Mbeki

"It takes a lot of strength to mend a broken heart. Channelising energies into our work helps, but work is not a solution to personal griefs." – Mary Kom

"Every act of reconciliation is a miracle, a phenomenon beyond human explanation and prediction." – Raimon Panikkar

"All the greatest and most important problems in life are fundamentally insoluble… They can never be solved, but only outgrown." – Carl Jung

"Reconciliation means working together to correct the legacy of past injustice." – Nelson Mandela

"Healing and reconciliation are a necessary part of the narrative. Otherwise, history repeats itself." – Andra Day

May these quotes offer guidance and wisdom to those seeking the path of reconciliation.

Wednesday, October 18, 2023

Why did jews return to Israel? What legitimize their return to that land?

 The return of Jews to Israel is a complex topic, and it is interwoven with religious beliefs, political movements, and historical circumstances.

Religious Aspect:

Divine Promise: Many Jews believe that God promised the land of Israel to the Jewish people. This belief is based on biblical texts. The covenant between God and Abraham, which is found in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), is often cited as the divine promise of the land to the Jewish people.

Exile and Return: Throughout history, there have been several instances where Jews were exiled from the land of Israel and later returned. The Babylonian exile and subsequent return (6th century BCE) is a notable example.

Political and Historical Aspects:

Zionism: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a political movement known as Zionism emerged. The movement sought to establish a national homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine. This was partially due to the persecution Jews faced in various countries.

Holocaust: The genocide of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War II, known as the Holocaust, greatly influenced the global and Jewish perspective regarding the need for a Jewish homeland. After the war, support for the establishment of a Jewish state increased significantly both among Jews and within the international community.

Balfour Declaration: In 1917, the British government, through the Balfour Declaration, expressed its support for "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people."

UN Partition Plan: In 1947, the United Nations proposed a plan to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Despite the Arab rejection of the plan, the State of Israel was proclaimed in 1948.

Socio-Cultural Aspects:

Identity and Connection: Many Jews have felt a profound historical and cultural connection to the land of Israel. This connection has been maintained and expressed through religious practices, literature, and traditions.

Geopolitical Aspects:

British Mandate: The British controlled Palestine from 1917 until 1948 under the British Mandate. Their policies, at various times, both facilitated and hindered Jewish immigration to the region.

Israeli-Arab Conflict: The establishment of Israel was followed by a complex and ongoing conflict with its Arab neighbors. This has involved numerous wars and consistent political tensions.

The return of Jews to Israel is, therefore, a multifaceted phenomenon influenced by a blend of religious, historical, political, and sociocultural factors. Various individuals and groups may prioritize or emphasize different aspects of these factors based on their beliefs, experiences, and perspectives.

Wednesday, October 11, 2023

Islamic verses that may have inspired radical muslim groups

  1. Surah Al-Baqarah (2:61)

    • "And [recall] when you said, 'O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food. So call upon your Lord to bring forth for us from the earth its green herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions.' [Moses] said, 'Would you exchange what is better for what is less? Go into [any] settlement and indeed, you will have what you have asked.' And they were covered with humiliation and poverty and returned with anger from Allah [upon them]. That was because they [repeatedly] disbelieved in the signs of Allah and killed the prophets without right. That was because they disobeyed and were [habitually] transgressing."
    • Description: This verse describes some Israelites who disobeyed Moses, but interpretations vary on whether it's a general condemnation of Jews or specific individuals.

  2. Surah Al-Ma'idah (5:51)

    • "O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people."
    • Description: This verse advises against taking Jews and Christians as allies, but interpretations vary regarding whether this was a specific historical directive or a general rule.

  3. Surah Al-Ma'idah (5:64)

    • "And the Jews say, 'The hand of Allah is chained.' Chained are their hands, and cursed are they for what they say. Rather, both His hands are extended; He spends however He wills. And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. And We have cast among them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindled the fire of war [against you], Allah extinguished it. And they strive throughout the land [causing] corruption, and Allah does not like corrupters."
    • Description: This verse accuses Jews of spreading corruption and having animosity, with differing interpretations on whether it refers to specific individuals or more broadly.

  4. Surah Al-Ma'idah (5:82)

    • "You will surely find the most intense of the people in animosity toward the believers [to be] the Jews and those who associate others with Allah..."
    • Description: This verse describes Jews as among the strongest in enmity toward the believers, with interpretations varying between a general characterization and a specific historical context.

These translations, while widely recognized, can differ slightly between versions. Thus, readers and scholars emphasize the importance of understanding the context in which these verses were revealed (Asbab al-Nuzul) and caution against taking them out of that context to apply them to different times, places, or people.

Discussions about religious texts and their interpretations should be approached with sensitivity, acknowledging that perspectives on these verses can vary widely even among adherents of the faith. Different Islamic scholars and communities may have varying interpretations and apply these verses differently in their beliefs and practices. Remember that it's essential to promote dialogue and understanding, particularly when engaging with topics of religious beliefs and interfaith relations.

Lesson 1: Learning Grammar Through Conversations

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